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modeling approaches

philipp rosendahl
philipp weißgraeber



The release of dry-snow slab avalanches is preceeded by a fracture process within the layered snowpack. For a crack to nucleate in the snowpack weak layer, two conditions must be met simultaneously. On the one hand, the weak layer must be overloaded in terms of stress. On the other hand, the energy release of newly forming cracks must suffice to form new surfaces. Read our publication on the application of this so-called coupled stress and energy criterion to crack nucleation in layered snowpacks.

ISSW 2018

At the International Snow Science Workshop 2018 from October 7th to October 12th in Innsbruck, Austria, we presented our model for skier-triggered dry-snow slab avalanche release. Watch the video to learn more.


Follow recent developments of 2phi 

August 9, 2018

Hello, we are!

Founded as a collaboration between friends and former co-workers, Philipp Rosendahl and Philipp Weißgraeber, 2φ is dedicated to deliver efficient and easy to use models using state-of-the-art scientific advances in structural design and fracture mechanics.

August 13, 2018

Abstracts submitted, paper in preparation

Today we submitted our contribution to the International Snow Science Workshop 2018 (ISSW) in Innsbruck, Austria. As backcountry skiers and fracture mechanists we developed a novel approach to modeling skier-triggered dry-snow slab avalanche release. We will present the model in a talk at ISSW and are preparing a publication in The Cryosphere.

October 14, 2018

We are back from ISSW

We spent the past week in Innsbruck, Austria, attending the International Snow Science Workshop 2018. Our first contact with snow and avalanche professionals from all over the world left us impressed, motivated and excited for applications and further developments of our slab avalanche release model.

October 19, 2018

ISSW special issue of bergundsteigen

We are invited to contribute an article to issue #105 of the German-language magazine bergundsteigen. bergundsteigen is concerned with the interaction of humans and mountains with particular focus on risk-management. The december issue will include certain topics from ISSW 2018. As long-term readers of the journal we are very excited about this opportunity.

January 25, 2019

Weak layer fracture mechanics in bergundsteigen #105

The latest issue of bergundsteigen with our take on weak layer fracture mechanics and many other interesting contributions from ISSW 2018 is online. Take a look at the issue preview or browse the archive.

April 12, 2019

Invited talk at the 2nd NATO Mountain Warfare Congress on Risk

Avalanche risk assessment is crucial for anyone who travels snowcoverd mountains. Touristically developed regions often provide avalanche bulletins, yet, in the majority of mountainous regions no such information is available. We were invited to the 2nd NATO Mountain Worfare Congress in Risk Management in Poljče, Slovenia to present possibilities of risk assessment using physical and mechanical snowpack models – also in remote regions.

May 9, 2019

Papers submitted, public peer review process started

We have submitted a two-part publications on skier-induced snowpack deformations and weak-layer crack nucleation to The Cryosphere. Part 1 and part 2 are publically open for dicussion at the journal homepage.

September 2, 2019

30th ALERT Geomaterials Workshop 

Supported by the Early Career Researcher Grant​ of the ​International Arctic Science Committee we traveled to Aussois, France, to dicuss the latest developments and discoveries concerning slab avalanche formation.

January 17, 2020

The Cryosphere publications online

Both papers submitted to The Cryosphere have passed the peer-review process and are available online. Read part 1 and part 2 on the journal hompage. 


2phi GbR

Tübingen, Germany